PUSD transcripts: Investigator finds two impermissible alterations, no systemic problem | News | PleasantonWeekly.com |


PUSD transcripts: Investigator finds two impermissible alterations, no systemic problem

Superintendent confident in integrity of district's records despite isolated incidents

In order for all area residents to have important local information on the coronavirus health emergency, PleasantonWeekly.com has lifted its pay meter and is providing unlimited access to its website. We need your support to continue our important work. Please join your neighbors and become a subscribing member today.

The Pleasanton Unified School District had two incidents of administrators improperly removing a course from a high school student transcript -- one inadvertent, one intentional, but both impermissible, according to the findings from the law firm investigating the integrity of district transcripts.

The memorandum, released to the Weekly on Friday, stated the two situations were isolated and did not indicate systemic problems with the district's management of student transcripts.

"After interviewing the aforementioned individuals and reviewing the written documents, I have concluded that the alleged improper removal of/changes to information from transcripts and records is not a systemic practice in the district," Melissa Phung, from the firm Fagen Friedman & Fulfrost, wrote in her summary of findings.

"In the course of the investigation, I could only validate two incidents of improper removals of courses from a high school transcript. In these isolated cases, the administrators involved had authorized the changes to the student transcripts and directed subordinates to remove the information from (PUSD's student information management system)," Phung said.

In each situation, the district restored the course back to the student's transcript immediately upon learning of the improper removal, according to Phung, whose three-page memorandum also urged the district to review its policies and procedures regarding transcripts as well as counsel the involved administrators on the correct protocol.

Employees involved were not identified in the memo, and it is unclear whether any administrators were disciplined in the case.

Superintendent David Haglund said he is confident that the investigator's report confirms no systemic problems with the integrity of PUSD transcripts.

"Absolutely," Haglund told the Weekly during an interview Friday afternoon.

"They did identify two instances of where student records had been altered, so that's the first big issue," Haglund said. "Both of those incidences have been corrected, so that's not an ongoing issue. They were corrected some time ago when we found out about them."

"The second thing is that she indicated through her 30 interviews of people across the district that it wasn't a systemic problem. And that's what was important to me when the first question was raised," the superintendent added.

The investigation, for which the district enlisted one of the four law firms it has under retainer this year, was launched after Haglund received an email from an employee in October raising concerns about high school transcript inconsistencies.

Phung's memorandum, issued to the district Jan. 31 to mark the conclusion of her investigation, described two confirmed improper transcript alterations in seemingly separate categories -- intentional and accidental.

One incident involved administrators removing a completed high school course, for which the student received a final grade, entirely from the student's high school transcript and record, according to Phung.

"Though the administrators who directed the removal did so out of a compassionate reason due to the life circumstances of the student, California law strictly limits when and how a grade can be changed or removed from a student's transcript," Phung stated.

Because none of the limited exceptions under state law were applicable, the administrators' decision was impermissible, according to the investigator.

The other situation surrounded a middle school course being "mistakenly removed from the student's record entirely instead of being suppressed from the high school transcript," Phung said.

"Though middle school courses are not required to be on high school transcripts, the complete removal of a grade from a student's record, including grades given in middle school, is impermissible," she said.

Both incidents involved administrators improperly altering student records. Phung did not cite any cases of teachers changing grades.

Haglund declined to identify which schools were involved in the course-removal incidents, but Association of Pleasanton Teachers president Janice Clark, when asked about the investigator's report Friday, offered a strong defense of Amador Valley High School teachers amid the transcript probe.

"Teachers at Amador Valley High School uphold integrity as an essential character trait. Amador's teachers, both academically and professionally, work tirelessly to support and enrich the experience of all students," Clark wrote in an email to the Weekly.

Haglund also defended teacher integrity and said he regretted "an unfortunate choice of words" used in the district's statement to the Weekly two weeks ago confirming the ongoing transcript investigation -- which described the probe as "around potentially inconsistent high school grading and/or transcript practices."

"It's important to me that we clarify that statement and ensure that everybody understands that at no point in time was the grading practices of teachers at issue in this investigation. It's never been questioned," Haglund said. "We have fantastic teachers in this district who work incredibly hard with the kids, and they are professionals and their integrity is intact."

The superintendent declined to identify the administrators deemed to have improperly changed student records, citing personnel confidentiality. Grading and transcript oversight falls under multiple departments at the district level, as well as at individual school sites, according to the district.

Phung's memorandum stated that while all school administrators technically have access to change grades and remove courses, "only a select few staff members have the actual knowledge and ability to do so."

Haglund said he could not comment on whether any disciplinary action had been or would be taken against administrators involved.

"I'm not at liberty to talk about processes involved in the human resources, what we call, progressive disciplinary practice," he said.

It is unclear what other reports and documents, beyond the summary of findings, district officials have received or reviewed from its legal consultant related to the investigation.

Phung's memorandum confirmed that the complaint was first raised to district leaders from an employee allegedly made aware of "requests to remove middle school courses from high school transcripts and possible grade modification of a high school course by someone other than the course's assigned teacher."

District officials said they enlisted the law firm to investigate the complaint because the concerns involved student records and potential Education Code violations.

Phung said she conducted interviews with more than 30 witnesses, including administrators, counselors and registrars from Amador Valley, Foothill and Village high schools as well as district office personnel. She said all participants were advised about the district's anti-retaliation policy and privacy rights.

She said she also reviewed a wide variety of documents, including emails, letters and student transcripts.

"Aside from a few isolated concerns, none of the witnesses interviewed reported any systemic or routine issues with improper grade or course changes to transcripts," Phung wrote.

In the memo, she tried to quell concerns about rampant transcript alterations in the future, saying the possibility is minimal since only a select few administrators have the access and the necessary knowledge of the operating system.

Phung's report also recommends three corrective actions:

"1. Immediately restore the grades/courses that were improperly removed from the students' records, and inform the students and their families of such actions and the basis for the corrective measures." (Haglund said this has already been accomplished.)

"2. Clarify, and if necessary revise, board policies, administrative regulations, and procedures with regard to requests for changes to grades and general transcript maintenance. Relevant staff should also be trained on such policies and procedures in order to ameliorate any confusion in the future as to the appropriate and legal framework of when grades or courses may be removed from a student's transcript."

"3. The administrators directly involved in the decision-making process of the identified incidents should be counseled regarding these errors and be given direction on how to proceed in the future should any similar request be made. Progressive discipline is warranted when a district employee engages in conduct inconsistent with federal and state law, or board policy."

All school board members have received the investigator's memorandum, but they will not be discussing the two cases in open session, according to Haglund. PUSD's Board Policy Subcommittee is reviewing district-wide transcript and grading policies, and any proposed revisions would return to the full board for consideration and adoption -- though no timeline is set.

Some changes to transcript practices at the school site level have been implemented or are in the process of being updated, according to Haglund.

The superintendent pointed out that reviewing the transcript and grading policies is part of a district overarching objective to respond to feedback from stakeholders in the community. The district has reportedly received a lot of public input the implementation of district policies and procedures and how some might be being applied differently at different school sites.

We need your support now more than ever. Can we count on you?


52 people like this
Posted by PUSDeepThroat
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 8, 2019 at 8:16 pm


What a shame it is to see the retirement of Douglass,
Impressive journey to the top without any moral compass

I hope he finds time to relax, and cozy up with a mocha
Clear his mind - erase the past, just like his ol pal Rocha.

DO attention is on Football pools at 5 dollars a head,
It’s nice to have a pool shutdown that wasn’t filled with lead.

Now, Its time to be straight forward with who played a part,
We demand some answers, and please, not through another Flow chart.

31 people like this
Posted by Joshua Baum
a resident of Amador Valley High School
on Feb 8, 2019 at 10:37 pm

District math is hard to cypher
If they give you two, it's a fiver
And a ghost in the machine, that's a trick
Enter a computer under somebody else's I.D., now that's a kick
Favor your neighbor's daughter, who cares what's her grade
When you can change it willy-nilly, I'm afraid
As for one employee's e-mail, Give us a break
From outright lies to quarter truths, O Super, that's a big mistake
And who knows what's systemic?
30 interviews is neither truth nor a pandemic
Nor a look at all the records either, I must say
But don't look under the rocks in the light of day
For what crawls out must be oily and well-gelled
But maybe it's for the best not looking, evildoers oft are felled
By their own tracks in the yard;
As for outside retainers, that's a moronic oxy, Old Pard,
It’s hiring the hiree to erase the dirty laundry
But you know, like me:
To clear this up will take the departure of at least three,
It's only fair when a teacher can lose her job
For an old college post because some young nob
Didn't like a grade, and seeks revenge
Not the kind of community I want to live in, my Friend:
So let's come clean at last, and fix this mess
It's time for The Emperor to look down and realize he's got no dress.

9 people like this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2019 at 8:56 am

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

Here is the applicable Ed Code: Web Link

Web Link

While Ed Code is the guide to the law, CSBA has recommended an administrative regulation to codify practices for grade changes or removal from student transcripts. Here is one example from Pasadena: Web Link It calls for the Superintendent to be the arbitrator.

PUSD does not have this AR (although they should be following Ed Code regardless). I would suggest the board insist on this AR and that it be made available to parents, teachers, and administrators.

13 people like this
Posted by Jed Hex
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 9, 2019 at 11:32 am

The current Superintendent is not viewed as a neutral arbiter by his employees. Note the three-month investigation that led to that first article, which was meant as the squid ink every good coverup needs. Better to have a group look at it. The school board, for example. Even now, the facts are far less than complete, and there has not been a thorough review of records—and even that would be incinclusive due to possible computerized impersonation.

23 people like this
Posted by San Hill
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 9, 2019 at 12:07 pm

The question wasn’t unclear procedures. It was breaking Ed code law and existing procedures, knowingly.

4 people like this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2019 at 1:05 pm

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

It could be ignorance of a particular section of Ed Code (a substantial amount of legislation), which is why policies and regulations are adopted and accessible to staff and the public. Everyone easily can look at what the rules are without an extensive search of law. Here is where to find PUSD policies and regulations. Web Link

3 people like this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2019 at 1:07 pm

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

Or you can wade through this: Web Link

9 people like this
Posted by sjd
a resident of Livermore
on Feb 9, 2019 at 1:34 pm

A single intentional application as part of a bad circumstance for a student seems acceptable to me.

And longer investigations are not indications of coverup. Just a lot of data to go through.

21 people like this
Posted by lmno
a resident of Amador Valley High School
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:11 pm

Kathleen, are you suggesting that PUSD hires top-level administrators who are not familiar with some of the most basic tenets of the California Ed Code, such as who is allowed to assign and modify student grades?

Let's not kid ourselves: this is an administration-funded investigation that--ASTOUNDINGLY--produced a report favorable to the people paying their bill.

There was no independent, third-party investigation, and what's more, the release published on the Weekly a week earlier was a clear attempt to diffuse suspicion by misrepresenting the facts to the public. The word around PUSD is that this was a much bigger problem that this self-funded report claims.

Here are some questions to consider:
Parents, did your son or daughter not get into the college of their choice because they were competing with students with doctored transcripts?
Do we know which administrators can no longer be trusted with student records? Have steps been taken to monitor and audit their access to future transcripts?
For that matter, why haven't any of the administrators involved been fired? They broke the law! Isn't that a standard that's been ruthlessly enforced against teachers, paraprofessionals, and classified staff in recent years?

School Board Trustees: Are you worthy of that title? Can we "trust" you to dig deeper into this situation and restore the public's faith in our school district?

35 people like this
Posted by Parent
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:12 pm

The teachers at Amador at least seem to revel in the policy of not rounding up grades of 89.5 - 89.9 to 90 and therefore an A.

This policy only shows me that our teachers, even those in the math department, don't know the mathematically proper handling of this calculation statistically.

If and only if all assignments were graded to the 0.1 digit and there was a meaningful difference between an essay lets say with a grade of 90.0 and a grade of 90.1 would you be justified to not round the grade from 89.9 to 90. Not just because the grading software only allows entry to the 0.1, a meaningful, objective difference is what is required statistically to not round the grade to the nearest whole number. Every single assignment.

If the policy were that PUSD handles grade calculations in the proper way that any mathematician would agree with and 89.5 rounds to 90, no one would ever complain. Everyone would be happy. That's what we were taught in 3rd grade and later in statistics and chemistry. No one would legitimately request 89.4 be rounded to 90.

I never really considered I would have to "pay off" the teachers/tutors or a district official to have the truth reflected on my student's transcript. But I don't really care all that much, he learned what he learned, and in a case like this, he learned that even in an educational institution, people can't be trusted to do the right thing.

32 people like this
Posted by Math Be Hard
a resident of California Reflections
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:23 pm

So teachers should always round? Why stop at 89.5? Technically, 50 rounds up to a 100. Everyone gets an A!

20 people like this
Posted by lmno
a resident of Amador Valley High School
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:28 pm

Math Be Hard, I think you're missing Parent's point. The idea is that Parent didn't get what he/she wanted, so getting someone at the district to change grades is the right thing to do.


21 people like this
Posted by Parent
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:31 pm

@ Math Must be Hard

You are showing a whole lot of ignorance. Maybe you didn't take or pay attention in science or statistics. The concept is called significant digits and it's not hard or much of a secret among educated people. Obviously, you are not in that group.

15 people like this
Posted by Amador Parent
a resident of Birdland
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:35 pm

Parent, this has NOTHING to do with teachers grading policies. At issue is a grade being removed on a transcript by an administrator. As a side note, my student at Amador did benefit from a Math teacher who rounded a 79.5 up to a B. My experience is that Amador teachers are very clear on their grading policies, regardless of how students and parents feel about it.
There is a board meeting next Tuesday, Feb. 12th. The open session begins at 7pm. Those with concerns should attend and speak up!

18 people like this
Posted by Parent
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:51 pm

@Amador Parent

I'm happy to hear that at least a mathematics teacher handled the calculation correctly for your student.

Now I know the policy is not only mathematically wrong, but inconsistently applied.

My only point is there is a proper way to handle this calculation mathematically. Teachers don't get to make up their own math rules for each class.

And although you know the investigation is about changing grades, you don't know why the grades were changed. This may have been the very reason.

An @imaho, I don't know exactly what you mean in your comment but I didn't ask the teacher or anyone to change the grade or complain in anyway. It is what it is... it just so happens to be mathematically wrong.

5 people like this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:56 pm

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

My point is, it is the Superintendent who may make changes, not a site administrator. Whether a site administrator didn't know is actually possible, especially if they went to the district's policy web site and did not find anything telling them they should not be the one to alter/modify a transcript (and the regulation is not there at this point that I could find).

10 people like this
Posted by lmno
a resident of Amador Valley High School
on Feb 9, 2019 at 2:59 pm


No, the superintendent is not authorized to change student grades behind teachers' backs either.

How do you not know this? Didn't you try to get on the school board once?

15 people like this
a resident of Amador Valley High School
on Feb 9, 2019 at 4:24 pm


8 people like this
Posted by Kathleen Ruegsegger
a resident of Vintage Hills
on Feb 9, 2019 at 10:46 pm

Kathleen Ruegsegger is a registered user.

Imno—Sigh. There is a process, if you would read the links, and it ultimately goes to the superintendent. It does not eliminate teachers.

50 people like this
Posted by Teacher
a resident of Amador Valley High School
on Feb 10, 2019 at 7:14 am

A few things of particular concern to me (and many of my colleagues) in no particular order:

1) the initial statement put out by the school district (knowingly?) misrepresented the situation and made people think teacher grading was being questioned. The statement was only corrected after staff began a letter writing campaign to the Board and supt making clear that we wouldn’t passively sit by and allow the district to cover this up and the expense of our credibility.

2) the entire tone of the “neutral” investigation leads many of us to believe it was not neutral at all. The language qualifies the transcript fraud as an act of kindness for someone with a hard life. It’s FRAUD, and the person who did it used another employee’s login info to do it. This tells me they knew what they were doing was wrong/illegal.

3) why are the “neutral” investors (who are paid my the district- this is not unlike Standard and Poors being paid by Goldman Sachs to give a AAA rating to their subprime mortgage backed securities. Favorable rating = future employment) recommending the consequences? Shouldn’t that be up to the Board and Superintendent?

4) this concept of “progressive discipline” is meant to allow discipline to be proportional to the infraction. If a teacher was fired because pictures of underage drinking in college were uncovered, or a basketball coach was fired because some crazy parents hired a private investigator to dig up decades old charges that were dropped, or teachers are told if we bet on Super Bowl Squares we’ll be breaking the law (infer: jeopardizing our jobs), then what is the appropriate progressive discipline for logging into a computer system with another person’s credentials and committing grade fraud? It sure doesn’t seem like consequences are equitably applied to upper management v lthe rank and file.

79 people like this
Posted by Amador Student
a resident of Birdland
on Feb 10, 2019 at 2:32 pm

Students at Amador Valley High School are held to very high standards. Our school implements a zero-tolerance policy on cheating. When we take tests, ours phones are confiscated, our backpacks and the contents within them are placed in the backs of classrooms, and if someone is suspected of or caught cheating, they receive an automatic zero. There are punishments in place for students who attempt to better their grades through dishonest means. Yet, there appear to be no punishments for administrators who change/remove grades, despite having violated California law (as referenced by their own lawyer’s quote in paragraph 14). It’s incredibly disheartening to learn that the district does not hold its administrators to the same rigid standards it sets for not only its students, but also its teachers. While most Amador students bust their asses and dedicate their high school years primarily to studying and schoolwork in hopes they may earn acceptance into some of the nation’s top universities, it’s very upsetting to learn that the results from this hard work might just as easily be attained by having an in with admin. Finally, I personally find it disgusting that the district attempted to dump its dirty laundry on our teachers. These amazing individuals dedicate their time, energy, and lives to us students. They are underpaid, under-appreciated, and the fact that the district attempted to deflect the blame for the mess it made sickens me. My hope is that the district will have the moral conscience to do what’s right, to do more than just “clarify its procedures” and “counsel administrators involved”, to administer ACTUAL penalties / punishments to those who broke the law, rather than simply promote them to a new position within PUSD.

17 people like this
Posted by Tom Ahaak
a resident of Downtown
on Feb 10, 2019 at 9:44 pm

Birdland nailed it. Nice call, Kid.

15 people like this
Posted by Birdland Resident
a resident of Birdland
on Feb 11, 2019 at 1:33 pm

I have to say, none of this surprises me. The district continues to sweep any controversary under the rug. This has been going on for the last 20 years that I know of. It’s a disgrace, people are pushing themselves to their limits, mentally and financially to move to P-town so their kids can go to school here. And for what?? To have an administrator changing grades? On a transcript?? What about all the parents completing college on line courses to beef up their kid’s transcript - we as a society are failing our kids. What are we teaching them? And let’s discuss the sports culture at our high schools while we’re at it. How do you have an athletic director who is also a varsity coach and who also is actively involved in one of the most expensive club/recruiting organizations around?? And now uses that same club team as a recruiting platform for his HS Varsity team? And makes special privledges for certain players (I.e. a player with an F being allowed to play) the discipline needs to be across the board. NO EXCEPTIONS!! Oh but wait, he’s the Athletic Director so he can do whatever he wants. Our administrators need to be held accountable and to the high standards we expect our students to follow. I’m so glad I no longer have kids in the Pleasanton school system. I feel sorry for my neighbors who are actively involved in this nonsense.

13 people like this
Posted by Lauren Andrade swept under rug
a resident of Another Pleasanton neighborhood
on Feb 11, 2019 at 1:52 pm

Lauren Andrade was a varsity swim coach, AP psych teacher at FHS. She "resigned" in 2014. Was given a $40,000 settlement. She was scheduled to start teaching the 2013-14 year, but her classes were covered by other teachers at the last minute. What happened to her? Her license is self revoked pending a misconduct investigation. Did the misconduct involve students? Why didn't the PUSD make a statement about this? It was at the same time as the Vranesh issue happened.

6 people like this
Posted by Kitty
a resident of Amador Estates
on Feb 11, 2019 at 2:10 pm

I remember when that happened at FHS.[removed because it contained speculative information] She took the $ so we never heard anything about it again. Swept under the rug as usual!!

7 people like this
Posted by Kacey
a resident of Ponderosa
on Feb 11, 2019 at 7:43 pm

Kacey is a registered user.

Amador Student / Birdland - well said. What say you PUSD?

9 people like this
Posted by Teacher
a resident of Amador Estates
on Feb 12, 2019 at 1:40 pm

There is a common misconception concerning rounding. In grading, there is a line in the sand that separates one letter grade from another. Let's assume it's 90% for A's and B's. That means that 90% and above are A's, and anything below 90% is a B.

If a teacher elects to round, then that teacher is effectively drawing a different line in the sand. The line becomes 89.5% instead of 90%. On one hand, we can applaud the teacher by providing the student with an A "because they were so close." But you see where this leads...then why not consider an 89.0% to be an 89.5% since "it's so close" to the actual A cutoff, and award an A? And so on.

Teachers can grade however they choose. But math is math, and 90% does not equal 89.5%.

9 people like this
Posted by A+ Niche Grade?!
a resident of Birdland
on Feb 13, 2019 at 6:58 pm

A+ Niche Grade?! is a registered user.

@Amador Student Compliments to you! Please let me know when you run for Office; You Have My Vote!!!!!

@Teacher, I was onboard until your last post. You started with, "There is a common misconception concerning rounding." and you end your post with, "Teachers can grade however they choose."

Misconception: a view or opinion that is incorrect because based on faulty thinking or understanding.

Rounding: To round a number to the nearest tenth, look at the next place value to the right (the hundredths). If it's 4 or less, just remove all the digits to the right. If it's 5 or greater, add 1 to the digit in the tenths place, and then remove all the digits to the right.

I don't believe Anyone has a misconception of what rounding is or how to do the "math."

What angers many students and parents are the facts some teachers are Subjective when determining a Grade or Grades and others are not. What is especially egregious is when a teacher shows outright favoritism with students grades in class - this is often demonstrated in group projects......Talk about a nosedive in Moral and lack of trust in a teacher.

Look, life is challenging, and it isn't always going to be fair, but should we reduce ourselves to accept, "Teachers can grade however they choose." Really?!?! There is no reason ever to make that statement.

7 people like this
Posted by busybee220
a resident of Birdland
on Feb 13, 2019 at 6:59 pm

busybee220 is a registered user.

@PUSD, looking forward to your response to Amador Student.

2 people like this
Posted by HolyCow
a resident of Amador Estates
on Feb 18, 2019 at 7:52 am

HolyCow is a registered user.

Let’s try and clarify:

1) There is nothing in the Ed Code regarding middle school grades on a HS transcript;
2) Removing a HS course from a transcript is not a grade change as covered by Ed Code;
3) HSs have different departmental rules for rounding up grades, or, ironically, math rounds, social/sciences typically don’t;
4) Teachers within same department do not always follow parallel syllabi and uniform rubric despite it being in the Ed Code and AR PUSD Policy;
5) Some teachers don’t even follow their own syllabus, and “wing” it;
6) Some teachers are phenomenal and deserve to be paid what PUSD “leadership” does for making a greater impact on the charter of the District, namely educating a student.
7) We May never know what actually happened herein because PUSD is auditing, err, investigating itself with one of its paid hired gun legal firms we pay out of our $130M+ budget

2 people like this
Posted by HolyCow
a resident of Amador Estates
on Feb 18, 2019 at 7:57 am

HolyCow is a registered user.

@Teacher, we can also add that 89.5% doesn’t equal 83%, and it’s a heck of a lot closer to A- than B-.
This is in part why schools outside CA often employ a numerical score for a GPA, as in 94% or 85%, and then rounding doesn’t really matter and we also get more delineation between a low A and a high A (or B or C) student. Yet, this is likely too sensical for CA.

Don't miss out on the discussion!
Sign up to be notified of new comments on this topic.


Sorry, but further commenting on this topic has been closed.

Stay up to date on local coronavirus coverage with our daily news digest email.

Be aware of hyperbole in numbers and media hype
By Tim Hunt | 14 comments | 1,597 views

Repairing a Disagreement with your Beloved & “Physical” vs. “Social” Distancing
By Chandrama Anderson | 0 comments | 664 views

Pet Safety Net?
By Tom Cushing | 0 comments | 548 views